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SAMA Foreign Holdings

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia See table Origin: Oil

Profile Directories

Sovereign Wealth Funds

Public Funds

Established: 1952
Transparency Rating: 4
View SWFI Direct Transaction Data
SWFI ID: 303G1000000001
Entity Structure: Fund in Central Bank
Pop Est.: 29.2 million – 2012
Wealth Per Capita Est.:

Fund Details

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Main Office

Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency
Al-Ma’ather Street

Mailing Address
P.O. Box 2992
Riyadh 11169
Saudi Arabia
Tel: +966-1- 463-3000


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The Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA) is the central bank of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The SAMA has a massive pool of foreign currency reserves.

Since June 1986, SAMA has a fixed exchange rate regime, with a dollar peg. Foreign exchange profits mainly from crude oil exports are deposited with the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency.


In December 2016, the Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority became the new name from the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency.

As of 2013, Saudi Arabia is the largest crude oil exporter. It is the only producer with significant spare capacity. A massive allocation of the oil receipts have been invested in international financial markets. A large and persistent fall in oil prices could cause a reversal of these outflows. According to a February 2013 EIA report, Saudi Arabia has almost one-fifth of the world’s proven oil reserves and is the biggest producer and exporter of total petroleum liquids in the world. In addition, Saudi Arabia has the world’s fifth largest natural gas reserves.

Before the creation of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, Saudi Hollandi Bank, part of the Netherlands Trading Society, from 1926 held the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s gold reserves and incoming oil revenue. It was the first operating bank in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Hollandi Bank transitioned its responsibilities as de facto central bank.

Under Saudi King Abdulaziz, the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency was established in 1952.

Saudi Arabia – Total Reserves including Gold

Source: SAMA – Billions USD, Annual Series

Historical Assets Under Management – SAMA

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